Difference between revisions of "Ternary Conditional"

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(Created page with "=Ternary Conditional= expression1 ? expression2 : expression3; ====Basic Usage==== The above code syntax would simply read: <font color="#0000ff">if</font>...")
 
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=Ternary Conditional=
 
=Ternary Conditional=
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  expression1 ? expression2 : expression3;
 
  expression1 ? expression2 : expression3;
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
====Basic Usage====
 
====Basic Usage====
Line 8: Line 10:
 
The above code syntax would simply read:
 
The above code syntax would simply read:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
  <font color="#0000ff">if</font> (expression1)
+
  if (expression1)
 
  {
 
  {
 
       expression2;
 
       expression2;
 
  }
 
  }
  <font color="#0000ff">else</font>
+
  else
 
  {
 
  {
 
       expression3;
 
       expression3;
 
  }
 
  }
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
This operator can be a more efficient way to do a simple if statement, especially if the resulting value is being stored in a common variable. Sometimes this operator is referred to as an "inline if" statement.
 
This operator can be a more efficient way to do a simple if statement, especially if the resulting value is being stored in a common variable. Sometimes this operator is referred to as an "inline if" statement.
Line 24: Line 28:
 
The example below will assign the larger of x or y to the common variable z:
 
The example below will assign the larger of x or y to the common variable z:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
  <font color="#0000ff">int</font> x = <font color="#7f007f">5</font>;
+
  int x = 5;
  <font color="#0000ff">int</font> y = <font color="#7f007f">10</font>;
+
  int y = 10;
  <font color="#0000ff">int</font> z = (x &gt; y) ? x : y;
+
  int z = (x &gt; y) ? x : y;
  <font color="#007f00">// z = 10
+
  // z = 10
  </font>
+
   
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
====Advanced Usage====
 
====Advanced Usage====
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You can nest if statements within if statements:
 
You can nest if statements within if statements:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">if</span> (condition_A)
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">if</span> (condition_A)
Line 53: Line 60:
 
     }
 
     }
 
  }
 
  }
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
Similarly, you can nest ternary operators within ternary operators:
 
Similarly, you can nest ternary operators within ternary operators:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  condition_A ? expression_1 : condition_B ? expression_2 : expression_3
 
  condition_A ? expression_1 : condition_B ? expression_2 : expression_3
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
Let's add some formatting to make that a little more readable:
 
Let's add some formatting to make that a little more readable:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  condition_A
 
  condition_A
Line 67: Line 78:
 
         ? expression_2
 
         ? expression_2
 
         : expression_3
 
         : expression_3
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
The ''Basic Usage'' code example found the larger of two numbers.
 
The ''Basic Usage'' code example found the larger of two numbers.
Line 76: Line 88:
 
* 0 if x and y are equal
 
* 0 if x and y are equal
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">int</span> z = x &gt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">1</span> : x &lt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">-1</span> : <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0</span>;
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">int</span> z = x &gt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">1</span> : x &lt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">-1</span> : <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0</span>;
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
====Master Class====
 
====Master Class====
Line 96: Line 110:
 
The following makes reference to the function [[GetMovementRate | GetMovementRate() ]].
 
The following makes reference to the function [[GetMovementRate | GetMovementRate() ]].
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
Line 157: Line 172:
 
         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>          HB_WLKRT_NORMAL;
 
         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>          HB_WLKRT_NORMAL;
 
  }
 
  }
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
Now, I did say: ''be easy to use and adapt by any NWScript coder.''
 
Now, I did say: ''be easy to use and adapt by any NWScript coder.''
Line 168: Line 184:
 
It can be read pretty much as English:
 
It can be read pretty much as English:
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  If this is the PC's movement rate ID return the PC's Walkrate
 
  If this is the PC's movement rate ID return the PC's Walkrate
Line 174: Line 191:
 
     otherwise
 
     otherwise
 
         ... and so on ...
 
         ... and so on ...
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
The default condition is the ''/* undocumented return value */''. Yes, this is a ''comment'': use whatever text is appropriate; ''/* default */'' is fine and holds to the switch metaphor. Here I've decided to return the Normal Walkrate if ''GetMovementRate()'' returns an undocumented ID. I use a ''default condition'' because any future update to ''NWScript'' may enhance the ''GetMovementRate()'' function by adding one or more new movement rates; if these were not ''trapped'', my module could crash. Doing this makes your code ''forwardly compatible''.
 
The default condition is the ''/* undocumented return value */''. Yes, this is a ''comment'': use whatever text is appropriate; ''/* default */'' is fine and holds to the switch metaphor. Here I've decided to return the Normal Walkrate if ''GetMovementRate()'' returns an undocumented ID. I use a ''default condition'' because any future update to ''NWScript'' may enhance the ''GetMovementRate()'' function by adding one or more new movement rates; if these were not ''trapped'', my module could crash. Doing this makes your code ''forwardly compatible''.
Line 198: Line 216:
 
Here's another example that returns an indication of what might be described as a creature's ''personal space'' based on the creature's size. Note the similarity to the previous function. Also note the optimisation: expecting to target medium sized creatures more often than huge or tiny ones.
 
Here's another example that returns an indication of what might be described as a creature's ''personal space'' based on the creature's size. Note the similarity to the previous function. Also note the optimisation: expecting to target medium sized creatures more often than huge or tiny ones.
  
 +
<nwscript>
 
   
 
   
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">float</span> GetProximityRadius(<span class="syntax-highlight-code">object</span> creature=<span class="syntax-highlight-code">OBJECT_SELF</span>)
 
  <span class="syntax-highlight-code">float</span> GetProximityRadius(<span class="syntax-highlight-code">object</span> creature=<span class="syntax-highlight-code">OBJECT_SELF</span>)
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         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>      HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_INVALID;
 
         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>      HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_INVALID;
 
  }
 
  }
 +
</nwscript>
  
 
=====Acknowledgements=====
 
=====Acknowledgements=====

Revision as of 22:03, 25 August 2012

Ternary Conditional

 
 expression1 ? expression2 : expression3;

Basic Usage

The above code syntax would simply read:

 
 if (expression1)
 {
      expression2;
 }
 else
 {
      expression3;
 }

This operator can be a more efficient way to do a simple if statement, especially if the resulting value is being stored in a common variable. Sometimes this operator is referred to as an "inline if" statement.


The example below will assign the larger of x or y to the common variable z:

 
 int x = 5;
 int y = 10;
 int z = (x &gt; y) ? x : y;
 // z = 10

Advanced Usage

The Basic Usage compares the ternary operator with a simple if statement.

You can nest if statements within if statements:

 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">if</span> (condition_A)
 {
     expression_1;
 }
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">else</span>
 {
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">if</span> (condition_B)
     {
         expression_2;
     }
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">else</span>
     {
         expression_3;
     }
 }

Similarly, you can nest ternary operators within ternary operators:

 
 condition_A ? expression_1 : condition_B ? expression_2 : expression_3

Let's add some formatting to make that a little more readable:

 
 condition_A
     ? expression_1
     : condition_B
         ? expression_2
         : expression_3

The Basic Usage code example found the larger of two numbers.

Suppose you want to compare two numbers and return:

  • 1 if x is larger than y
  • -1 if x is smaller than y
  • 0 if x and y are equal
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">int</span> z = x &gt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">1</span> : x &lt; y ? <span class="syntax-highlight-number">-1</span> : <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0</span>;

Master Class

The Advanced Usage showed one level of nesting; however, there is no pre-programmed maximum depth† of nesting.

† By pre-programmed maximum depth, I mean there is no rule that says you can only nest to 3 or 4 or 7 or whatever levels.

Let's develop some real, and hopefully useful, code which will:

  • return a movement speed for a creature (in meters per second)
  • be easy to use and adapt by any NWScript coder
  • show 8 levels of ternary operator nesting
  • be very easy to read through the use of a tabular code layout (see Acknowledgements )
  • provide the functionality of a switch statement with 9 conditional cases and a default case
  • provide the switch functionality in a single, easy to read, NWScript statement

The following makes reference to the function GetMovementRate() .

 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
     GetMovementRate() returns a heap of numbers I won't remember.
     Better give them names.
     I'll use my usual HB_ prefix - I hope no one else is using this.
 \************************************************************************/</span>
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_PC        = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_IMMOBILE  = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">1</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_VERY_SLOW = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">2</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_SLOW      = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">3</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_NORMAL    = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">4</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_FAST      = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">5</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_VERY_FAST = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">6</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_CREATURE  = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">7</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const int</span> HB_MOVERATEID_DM_FAST   = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">8</span>;
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
     GetMovementRate() doco has a heap of numbers I won't remember.
     Better give them names too. I'll start with Walkrate.
     * TODO * Implement Runrate when Walkrate works. Use prefix HB_RNRT_
     Divide values by 6 - I want meters per second (not per round).
 \************************************************************************/</span>
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_PC        = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.333333333</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_IMMOBILE  = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.000000001</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_VERY_SLOW = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.125000000</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_SLOW      = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.208333333</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_NORMAL    = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.291666667</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_FAST      = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.375000000</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_VERY_FAST = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.458333333</span>;
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">const float</span> HB_WLKRT_DM_FAST   = <span class="syntax-highlight-number">0.916666667</span>;
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
     Prototypes
     * STICKY TODO * Check there's a prototype for every function.
 \************************************************************************/</span>
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">float</span> get_walkrate_by_creature_ms(<span class="syntax-highlight-code">object</span> creature=<span class="syntax-highlight-code">OBJECT_SELF</span>);
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/************************************************************************\
     Functions
 \************************************************************************/</span>
 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">float</span> get_walkrate_by_creature_ms(<span class="syntax-highlight-code">object</span> creature=<span class="syntax-highlight-code">OBJECT_SELF</span>)
 {
 
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">int</span> iMoveRateId = GetMovementRate(creature);
 
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">return</span>
           iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_PC        ? HB_WLKRT_PC
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_CREATURE  ? HB_WLKRT_NORMAL
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_NORMAL    ? HB_WLKRT_NORMAL
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_SLOW      ? HB_WLKRT_SLOW
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_FAST      ? HB_WLKRT_FAST
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_VERY_FAST ? HB_WLKRT_VERY_FAST
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_VERY_SLOW ? HB_WLKRT_VERY_SLOW
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_DM_FAST   ? HB_WLKRT_DM_FAST
         : iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_IMMOBILE  ? HB_WLKRT_IMMOBILE
         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>          HB_WLKRT_NORMAL;
 }

Now, I did say: be easy to use and adapt by any NWScript coder.

It is not important to understand how this syntax works!

The 9 conditions are all on the left: iMoveRateId == HB_MOVERATEID_

The values on the right are the Walkrates (in meters per second).

It can be read pretty much as English:

 
 If this is the PC's movement rate ID return the PC's Walkrate
 otherwise
     If this is the Creature's movement rate ID return the Creature's Walkrate
     otherwise
         ... and so on ...

The default condition is the /* undocumented return value */. Yes, this is a comment: use whatever text is appropriate; /* default */ is fine and holds to the switch metaphor. Here I've decided to return the Normal Walkrate if GetMovementRate() returns an undocumented ID. I use a default condition because any future update to NWScript may enhance the GetMovementRate() function by adding one or more new movement rates; if these were not trapped, my module could crash. Doing this makes your code forwardly compatible.

Gotchas

Four things that might trip the unwary:

  • The first line has no colon
  • The last line has no question mark
  • The last line ends in a semicolon
  • The default condition must always be on the last line
Optimisation

If you think certain conditions are more likely to be TRUE than others, put them nearer to the top of the list.

This is because the statement ends as soon as a TRUE condition is found.

Here I'm guessing that get_walkrate_by_creature_ms() will be targetting creatures which walk at a more normal speed than those which are particularly fast or slow.

Additional Example Code

Here's another example that returns an indication of what might be described as a creature's personal space based on the creature's size. Note the similarity to the previous function. Also note the optimisation: expecting to target medium sized creatures more often than huge or tiny ones.

 
 <span class="syntax-highlight-code">float</span> GetProximityRadius(<span class="syntax-highlight-code">object</span> creature=<span class="syntax-highlight-code">OBJECT_SELF</span>)
 {
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">int</span> iSizeIndex = GetCreatureSize(creature);
 
     <span class="syntax-highlight-code">return</span>
           iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_MEDIUM  ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_MEDIUM
         : iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_SMALL   ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_SMALL
         : iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_LARGE   ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_LARGE
         : iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_TINY    ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_TINY
         : iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_HUGE    ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_HUGE
         : iSizeIndex == CREATURE_SIZE_INVALID ? HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_INVALID
         : <span class="syntax-highlight-comment">/* undocumented return value */</span>       HB_PROXIMITY_RADIUS_INVALID;
 }
Acknowledgements

The idea for the tabular layout comes from Damian Conway's excellent book Perl Best Practices (ISBN: 0-596-00173-8). Published by O'Reilly: http://search.oreilly.com/?q=perl+best+practices


 authors: Ryan Hunt (Basic Usage), Ken Cotterill (Advanced Usage and Master Class), editor: Charles Feduke